We all get small headaches once in a while. Some people, however, suffer from migraines which are significantly more severe. In addition to the obvious headache, migraine causes weakness, vision problems, nausea and sensitivity to light and noise. Over time, it can also affect the morale of migraine sufferers. For some, migraines are intermittent while for others, they are continuously present.
One out of every five people suffer from migraines and, on average, they have one attack a month. Women are typically twice as likely to suffer from migraines as men. Migraines in women are often linked to their menstrual cycles. In 70% of the cases, migraine sufferers come from families where there is history of migraine.
How to tell a migraine apart from other types of headaches
|Characteristics||Types of headaches|
|Frequency||Once a year to three times a day||Once every two days to eight times a day||Less than once every two days|
|Severity||Moderate to severe||Very severe||Mild to moderate|
|Duration||A few hours to a few days||A few minutes to a few hours||A few minutes to a several days|
|Location||Often unilateral (on one side of the head)||Always unilateral (on one side of the head)||Bilateral (both sides of the head) with neck pain|
|Quality||Pulsating or throbbing||Penetrating no pulsating or throbbing||Pressing|
|Additional symptoms||Nausea, vomiting, hypersensitivity to light and sound||Tearing, congestion, sweating||Sensitivity to light and sound|
Certain factors can trigger migraines. It is important to identify what may trigger migraines and avoid them if possible in order to reduce the frequency and intensity of migraines.
|Hormonal fluctuations||Sensory Stimuli|
Certain types of drugs, such as oral contraceptives, can cause migraines. Also, the repeated use of analgesics (acetaminophen or ibuprofen) to relieve headaches, may lead to migraines. In fact, the body becomes somewhat accustomed to this type of chronic use and, as a result, the body's natural pain coping mechanisms become "defective" once the medication is discontinued, which causes headaches. This phenomenon is known as rebound headaches.
It is recommanded that you keep a headhache diary. You can record the following information about your headhache:
- Prodrome: About 60% of migraine sufferers experience prodromes. Early signs such as stiff muscles, especially in the neck, and mood swings are usually telltale signs that a migraine will develop within the next hours or days.
- Aura : About 20% of migraine sufferers experience auras. Blood vessels contract, leading to several problems (blurred or cloudy vision, tingling or numbness, buzzing, speech disturbance, etc.).
- Pain : During this phase, the blood vessels in the face and head dilate. Localized pressure increases, causing pain.
Generally speaking, migraine sufferers should avoid trigger foods (mentioned above) and reduce stress as much as possible since stress seems to be a factor that promotes or precipitates migraines. During a migraine attack, it is recommended that sufferers lie down where it is cool, quiet and dark. Partial relief can be obtained by applying ice to the head.
To relieve a headache, analgesics such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen are recommended. These products are available at your local pharmacy, ask your healthcare professional.
When migraines cannot be managed or when they become incapacitating in that they interfere with daily activities, a physician can prescribe stronger medication. Certain products can help prevent migraines or reduce the number of attacks. They are primarily given to those who suffer from several or severe attacks.