The most common synonyms are:
Other street names include: Acapulco gold, Ace, Bat, Bhang, Boom, Hemp, Indian hemp, Colombian, Doobie, Dope (cannabis), Ganja, Hydro, Jamaican, Jive (stick), Joint, Maui wowie, Mexican, Panama gold, Panama red, Pot, Chronic, Ragweed, Reefer, Sativa, Sinse, California sinsemilla, Spliff, Thai stick Cannabis can be combined with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, including:
|Mechanism of action|
|Routes of administration|
Ingested: marijuana and hashish can be mixed into food such as muffins.
Effects sought out by the user
- Abstract thoughts (creative or philosophical ideas seem to flow more easily)
- Decreased nausea and increased appetite
- Heightened sensory perceptions
- Inappropriate laughter (without any apparent reason)
- Reduced stress
Common toxic effects
- Altered state of consciousness
- Change in vision (heightened perception of colours and lights)
- Distorted time perception
- Dry mouth*
- Fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy
- Impaired language and motor function, loss of coordination*
- Increased appetite*
- Increased heart rate
- Red eyes*
- Short-term memory loss
- Panic attacks
- Severe anxiety
- Loss of motivation
Effects associated with chronic use
- Cancer-causing effects (many of the substances in marijuana smoke are related to tobacco smoke and some of them are even more concentrated)
- Increased heart rate, which can put significant stress on the heart
- Memory loss and impaired comprehension
- Precipitation or exacerbation of latent or existing mental disorders (e.g., psychosis, schizophrenia)
- Respiratory problems (bronchitis, respiratory tract infections)
Tolerance (need to increase the dose to feel the same effect)
Yes. Users develop tolerance to the effects that are sought and to many systemic effects (confusion, drowsiness, red eyes).
Yes, psychological. People who use strong doses of cannabis on a regular basis can also develop physical dependence.
Symptoms last about 2 to 4 days and up to 6 weeks if usage has been long-term. The severity of symptoms is related to frequency and duration of use and to individual sensitivity to THC. Potential effects include:
- Anhedonia (loss of enjoyment)
- Fatigue and abnormal drowsiness
- Headache and general malaise
- Impaired thought process and speech
- Sleep disturbance
- Slight loss of appetite
|Route of administration||Onset of action||Peak||Duration of action|
|Smoked||A few seconds to 10 minutes||15 to 30 minutes||1 to 4 hours, sometimes up to 8 hours|
|Ingested||30 minutes to 2 hours||2 to 5 hours||4 to 10 hours, sometimes up to 12 hours|
- Urine: can be detected for several weeks after use.
- Symptom-based management of intoxication.
- There is no known antidote or any specific treatment although cannabidiol may counteract some of the effects of THC.